A Cyberinfrastructure platform to meet the needs of data intensive radio astronomy on route to the SKA

  • Bookmarks
  • Samuel George
  • The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey -- III. Characterizing Physical Properties of Massive...

The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey -- III. Characterizing Physical Properties of Massive Star-Forming Regions in the Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud

  • Public
By Samuel George 3368 days ago

We present the 1.1 millimeter Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observations of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud complex, and targeted ammonia observations of the BGPS sources. When paired with molecular spectroscopy of a dense gas tracer, millimeter observations yield physical properties such as masses, radii, mean densities, kinetic temperatures and line widths. We detect 34 distinct BGPS sources above 5-sigma=0.37 Jy/beam with corresponding 5-sigma detections in the ammonia (1,1) transition. Eight of the objects show water maser emission (20%). We find a mean millimeter source FWHM of 1.12 pc, and a mean kinetic temperature of 20 K for the sample of 34 BGPS sources. The observed ammonia line widths are dominated by non-thermal motions, typically found to be a few times the thermal sound speed expected for the derived kinetic temperature. We calculate the mass for each source from the millimeter flux assuming the sources are isothermal and find a mean isothermal mass within a 120" aperture of 230 +/- 180 solar masses. We find a total mass of 8,400 solar masses for all BGPS sources in the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud, representing 6.5% of the cloud mass. By comparing the millimeter isothermal mass to the virial mass within a radius equal to the mm source size calculated from the ammonia line widths, we find a mean virial parameter (M_vir/M_iso) of 1.0 +/- 0.9 for the sample. We find mean values for the distributions of column densities of 10^22 cm^-2 for H_2, and 3.0x10^14 cm^-2 for ammonia, giving a mean ammonia abundance of 3.0x10^-8 relative to H_2. We find volume-averaged densities on the order of 10^3-10^4 cm^-3. The sizes and densities suggest that in the Gem OB1 region the BGPS is detecting the clumps from which stellar clusters form, rather than smaller, higher density cores where single stars or small multiple systems form.